Reporting and preventing radicalisation, terrorist and extremist behaviour

If you are unsure or suspicious about somebody's activities or behaviour, however insignificant it may seem at the time, please report your concerns to the anti-terrorist hotline on 0800 789 321.

Dial 999 if there is an immediate threat to life.

If you believe that someone is at risk of radicalisation you can help them obtain support and prevent them becoming involved in terrorism by raising your concerns and making a referral. You may have concerns about a potentially vulnerable institution that is being exploited for the purpose of promoting an extremist ideology. In either case, a dedicated team is ready to help.

For referrals in Dorset: email MASH@dorset.pnn.police.uk

For referrals in Devon and Cornwall: email prevent@devonandcornwall.pnn.police.uk.

Please include as much detail as you can about the nature of your concerns and about the individual/institution involved. 

Stop Terrorists & Extremists Online Presence

The internet and social media provides many opportunities for those with extreme views to target young or vulnerable individuals. The Counter Terrorism Internet Referral Unit put considerable effort into removing terrorist and extremist material, however the police depend on information from the public in our efforts to keep us all safe.

We are asking anyone who has concerns about online content to report it by clicking the STOP Terrorists’ & Extremists’ Online button.

Find out more about the Prevent Strategy

Prevent works by developing a more in-depth understanding of how an individual can become radicalised to the point where they can either become directly involved in terrorist activity or support terrorism.

Prevent is one part of the United Kingdom’s counter terrorism strategy (CONTEST) which aims to stop people from becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism. Prevent utilises a multiagency approach, similar to the one that has already been proved to be highly successful in dealing with other safeguarding issues such as Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE).

It is local authority led and the multi-agency approach allows Prevent to achieve its purpose of safeguarding vulnerable individuals who are at risk of radicalisation.

The Prevent strategy will specifically:

  • Respond to the ideological challenge of terrorism and the threat we face from those who promote it
  • Prevent people from being drawn into terrorism and ensure that they are given appropriate advice and support
  • Work with sectors and institutions where there are risks of radicalisation which we need to address

Prevent does not aim to criminalise people for holding extreme views; it operates in the pre-criminal space. Instead it aims to stop the encouragement or commission of violent activity. Reporting concerns will not automatically cause the person to have a criminal record. Prevent is not an alternative to the criminal justice system. Only if an actual crime has been committed then normal criminal justice procedures will apply.

There are many terms that are associated with the topic of terrorism and it is important that for the purposes of promoting understanding of the aims of Prevent, that they are clearly explained:

  • Radicalisation is the process by which a person comes to adopt increasingly extreme political, social, or religious ideals. This can eventually result in condonation or support of terrorism.
  • Extremism is the holding of political, religious, ideological ideas or actions that are outside the parameters of the moderate mainstream and not normal, reasonable or acceptable to most people. It is important to understand that extremism in itself is not illegal but it can act as a pathway to terrorism.
  • Violent Extremism is where people seek to justify or promote terrorism or encourage others to commit such acts.
  • Terrorism is the use or threat of action where the use or threat is designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public or a section of the public, and the use or threat is made for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause.


Note: these explanations are given for the purpose of clarifying the use of terms in this text. They are not legal definitions and their meaning may differ when used in other publications. 

Vulnerable

There are numerous factors that can make an individual vulnerable to radicalisation and reduce their resilience to accepting extremist messages.

These can include: 

  • Grievance/injustice (perceived or real) e.g. bullying
  • Group influence or control
  • Desire for status
  • Mental ill-health
  • Transitional life events (bereavement, divorce, relocation etc)
  • Lack of identity, meaning or belonging
  • Need for dominance and control
  • Political/moral motivation
  • Desire for excitement, comradeship and adventure

This is not an exhaustive list and it may be the case that despite having some of these vulnerabilities, an individual may not be engaged with an extreme narrative. Involvement in terrorism is not the only safeguarding concern that can be facilitated by some of these vulnerabilities.

Individuals that are affected by sexual exploitation, drug/alcohol abuse, involvement with gangs and other crime types can also share similar vulnerabilities to those at risk of being drawn into terrorism. Involvement in other criminal activities may also increase an individual’s vulnerability to accepting a radical ideology and the experience could potentially make them more capable of participating in violent extremist activity.

If there is a safeguarding concern, then it is important that these concerns are shared with the appropriate services so an assessment can be made and suitable support measures provided.

Radicalisation

Prevent works by developing a more in-depth understanding of how an individual can become radicalised to the point where they can either become directly involved in terrorist activity or support terrorism.

Involvement in terrorist activity is not limited to committing acts of violence; it can also be fund raising activity or actively promoting an extreme message to recruit others, to name just two examples.

By developing a deeper comprehension of the radicalisation process it is possible to identify ways of preventing people from being drawn towards terrorism or supporting what is known as violent extremism.

Radicalisation is a process and can vary greatly between individuals, as the progression is highly dependent on a wide range of personal characteristics. However, it typically involves the exposure of an individual to extremist viewpoints and interpretations that could in due course influence someone to perpetrate an act of terrorism or pledge their support. This process can take as little as a few hours or as much as several years. Every individual is unique and there is no specific timeframe within which the radicalisation process progresses.

Exposure to a radical ideology can occur through any delivery method but may commonly involve viewing of extreme content on the internet, the reading of associated written publications and attendance of events  orated by an extremist speaker.

The use of the internet is perhaps the most likely and most prominent delivery method exploited by extreme ideologues seeking to radicalise vulnerable individuals into pledging support.

For advice on how you can improve your safety online visit https://www.getsafeonline.org/. You can report any suspected online extremist content via https://www.gov.uk/report-terrorism.

The radicalisation process may lead to a number of observable behaviours being displayed by a vulnerable individual:

  • Depressed
  • Withdrawn
  • Change of routine
  • Social isolation
  • Inappropriate questions
  • Absenteeism
  • New found arrogance
  • Change in language
  • Short tempered
  • Angry
  • Tattoos
  • New circle of friends
  • Intolerance
  • Closed to new ideas
  • Fixation on a subject 

As with the vulnerability factors, this is not an exhaustive list and any number of these behaviours being observed may be indicative of another safeguarding concern, not only terrorism.

If the behaviours and vulnerabilities detailed above are observed then serious consideration should be given to seeking further advice and making a referral to Prevent. Referrals can be made anonymously and any information provided will remain confidential.

Channel

It is possible to intervene during the radicalisation process and stop someone becoming drawn towards terrorism or supporting violent extremist activity. This is achieved by Prevent using the Channel Process.

Channel is a process developed to support people at risk of being drawn towards terrorism or violent extremism. A multiagency panel, chaired by the local authority, is convened and partners work collaboratively to establish a bespoke support package for vulnerable individuals. Channel partners include local authority, healthcare providers, probation, housing, police and can extend to members of the community, if considered appropriate.

A range of support options are available and can include (but are not limited to) mentoring, welfare support and access to key social care services.

Safeguarding is the primary purpose of the Prevent strategy and it can be used to support the people in your community. You may have concerns that an individual is susceptible to radicalisation or recruitment by terrorists or violent extremists.The earlier the referral is made, the earlier Channel intervention can take place and therefore the more likely it is to be effective.

We all have a role to play in Prevent within our organisations and communities by helping people understand what the strategy aims to achieve. 

Watch Prevent's short film which describes the devastation caused to families whose loved ones have travelled or attempted to travel to a conflict zone abroad.

Left Behind focuses on the accounts of four police Prevent contact officers who have supported families from across the country and witnessed first hand the anquish they go through as a consequence of a family member’s actions.

From the initial shock through to the practical disruption to families and their children, the officers talk frankly and openly and appeal to people who are concerned about a loved one who may be considering travel, to contact the police before it is too late.

Anti Terrorist Hotline

Useful Links

Report Terrorism (gov.uk) - where you can report terrorist online content

Prevent Tragedies - Created due to increasing concern about the numbers of people who are putting themselves at risk by travelling to Syria and other conflict zones and to help the numbers of families that have been torn apart by fear when their loved ones travel

Let’s Talk about It - Contains detailed information about Prevent, Channel, Travel Advice, Charitable giving advice and a host of useful resources

Get Safe Online - internet safety advice on all types of potential safeguarding issues, including terrorism

360 Safe - Award winning E-safety review tool

We Will Inspire - A non-governmental advocacy organisation (NGO) working to counter extremism and gender inequality.

Families Matter - UK-based organisation providing support to vulnerable families and individuals

National Counter Terrorism Security Office - The National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO) is a police unit that supports the 'protect and prepare' strands of the government’s counter terrorism strategy.

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